<history of philosophy, philosophical terminology> School of philosophy organized at Athens in the third century BC by Zeno of Citium and Chrysippus. The stoics provided a unified account of the world that comprised formal logic, materialistic physics, and naturalistic ethics. Later Roman stoics, including Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius emphasized more exclusively the development of recommendations for living in harmony with a natural world over which one has no direct control. Recommended Reading: Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, ed. by Johannes ab Arnim (Irvington, 1986); Handbook of Epictetus, tr. by Nicholas P. White (Hackett, 1983); A. A. Long, Stoic Studies (California, 2001); Brad Inwood, Ethics and Human Action in Early Stoicism (Oxford, 1987); Marcia L. Colish, The Stoic Tradition from Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages: Stoicism in Classical Latin Literature (Brill, 1990); and Lawrence C. Becker, A New Stoicism (Princeton, 1999).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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