<logic> Originally, any surprising, puzzling, or counter-intuitive claim, especially a counter-intuitive truth, or
an apparently sound argument leading to acontradiction. Most paradoxes stem from some kind of self-reference. In modern logic, a concept or proposition that is not only self-contradictory, but for which the obvious alternatives are either self-contradictory or very costly. Recommended Reading: Glenn W. Erickson and John A. Fossa, Dictionary of Paradox (U. Pr. of Am., 1998); Nicholas Rescher, Paradoxes: Their Roots, Range, and Resolution (Open Court, 2001); and R. M. Sainsbury, Paradoxes (Cambridge, 1995).
See Grelling's paradox, Liar paradox, implication, Russell's paradox, Skolem paradox
based on [Glossary of First-Order Logic], [FOLDOC], [A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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