1. <ontology, metaphysics> A systematic account of what there is, an inventory of what exists.
2. <artificial intelligence> An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.
For AI systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented. When the knowledge about a domain is represented in a declarative language, the set of objects that can be represented is called the universe of discourse. We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.
A set of agents that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. We say that an agent commits to an ontology if its observable actions are consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the Knowledge-Level perspective.
3. <information science> The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. See subject index. This is an extension of the previous senses of "ontology" (see 2 above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining subject indices. Recommended Reading: Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, tr. by Hazel E. Barnes (Washington Square, 1993); Herman Philipse, Heidegger's Philosophy of Being (Princeton, 1998); Gustav Bergmann, New Foundations of Ontology, ed. by William Heald and Edwin B. Allaire (Wisconsin, 1992); W. V. O. Quine, Ontological Relativity (Columbia, 1977); and Roger F. Gibson, Jr., The Philosophy of W. V. Quine: An Expository Essay (Florida, 1986).
based on [A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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