<metaphysics, ontology, monism, dualism, atomism, idealism> <spiritualism> according to Leibniz, monads are the ultimate indivisible units or "true atoms" of all existence. Monads are not material: each monad is a self-activating, unique, center of "purpose" and "perception." Monads cannot interact, but are in a "preestablished harmony" with each other, by the grace of God. Recommended Reading: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Philosophical Texts, ed. by Richard Francks and R. S. Woolhouse (Oxford, 1998); Anthony Savile, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Leibniz and the Monadology (Routledge, 2000); Bertrand Russell, A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz (Routledge, 1993); and Donald Rutherford, Leibniz and the Rational Order of Nature (Cambridge, 1997).
based on [A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names] [Philosophical Glossary]
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