<aesthetics, ethics, will, action>, <political thought, self-causality, necessity, possibility>, <metaphysics, philosophy of nature>, <free will, self-determination>, <necessity, liberalism, empiricism, psychology, Enlightment> (Lat. libertas Ger. Freiheit) - the human capacity to act (or not to act) as we choose or prefer, without any external compulsion or restraint. Freedom in this sense is usually regarded as a presupposition of moral responsibility: the actions for which I may be praised or blamed, rewarded or punished, are just those which I perform freely. The further question of whether choice-the volition or will to act-is itself free or subject to ordinary causality raises the issue of determinism in human conduct. But most modern philosophers have held that (internal) determination of the will by desire or impulse does not diminish the relevant sense of moral responsibility. Recommended Reading: Free Will, ed. by Gary Watson (Oxford, 1983); Ilham Dilman, Free Will: An Historical and Philosophical Introduction (Routledge, 1999); Robert Kane, The Significance of Free Will (Oxford, 1998); Laura Waddell Ekstrom, Free Will: A Philosophical Study (Westview, 2000); Graham McFee, Free Will (McGill, 2001); and Daniel C. Dennett, Elbow Room (MIT, 1984).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
Try this search on OneLook / Google