<history of philosophy, metaphysics, gnoseology, epistemology> the starting-point for Descartes's philosophy. He used perceptual illusions, the dream problem, and the possibility of a deceiving god to show the uncertainty of many common beliefs. Only the cogito then survives as an indubitable foundation for knowledge. Recommended Reading: RenČ Descartes, Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, tr. by Donald A. Cress (Hackett, 1999); E. M. Curley, Descartes Against the Skeptics (Iuniverse, 1999); and The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, ed. by John Cottingham (Cambridge, 1992).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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