<philosophy of science, epistemology, logic> the relationship between empirical evidence and the scientific hypotheses it is used to support. Although abductive reasoning can provide only partial or incomplete support for such hypotheses, their falsification by contadictory evidence can be absolute. Hempel pointed out a systematic paradox regarding the nature of confirming instances. Recommended Reading: Karl R. Popper, Logic of Scientific Discovery (Routledge, 1992); Richard Swinburne, An Introduction to Confirmation Theory (Methuen, 1973); Lawrence Sklar, Probability and Confirmation (Garland, 1999); and Induction, Probability, and Confirmation, ed. by Maxwell Grover and Robert Anderson.
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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