<causality, substance, ontology, stoicism, neo-platonism> <occasionalism, logic, epistemology, philosophy of science> <neo-positivism, determinism, scientific law> whatever is responsible for changes (including the creation and destruction) of things. According to Aristotle causes fall into four types: material cause, the substance a thing is made of; formal cause, the structure or design of the thing; efficient cause, the maker or instigator of the change; and final cause, the purpose or function of it (see teleology). Modern would-be-scientific conceptions of causality generally eschew final causation or teleology Hume argued that all knowledge of causation comes from our actual experience of observed regularities and includes no real knowledge of any objectively necessary connection. See determinism, scientific law.
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