<history of philosophy, biography> Scottish philosopher (1710-1796) who developed "common-sense" philosophy in reaction against the skepticism of Hume in his An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (1764). Reid criticized the trend of modern philosophy in Essays on the Intellectual Powers (1785), rejecting the representationalism he called "the way of ideas" in order to defend direct realism in perception. In Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind (1788) Reid developed an intuitionist moral theory that drew heavily upon the natural law tradition. Recommended Reading: Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays (Hackett, 1983); Keith Lehrer, Thomas Reid (Routledge, 1999); Peimin Ni, On Reid (Wadsworth, 2000); Nicholas Wolterstorff, Thomas Reid and the Story of Epistemology (Cambridge, 2001); The Philosophy of Thomas Reid, ed. by Melvin Dalgarno and Eric Matthews (Kluwer, 1989); and William L. Rowe, Thomas Reid on Freedom and Morality (Cornell, 1991).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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