<philosophical terminology, history of philosophy> Greek philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., many of them known to us only through fragmentary reports by later writers, whose speculative and practical thought predates the development of critical philosophy by Socrates and Plato. Prominent presocratics include: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Hippias, Leucippus, Democritus, and the Sophists. Recommended Reading: Kathleen Freeman, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (Harvard, 1983); G. S. Kirk and J. E. Raven, The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History With a Selection of Texts (Cambridge, 1988); Jonathan Barnes, The Presocratic Philosophers (Routledge, 1982); and The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, ed. by A. A. Long (Cambridge, 1999).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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