Hempel Carl Gustav

<history of philosophy, biography> german-american philosopher of science (1905-1997). In Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science (1952) and Aspects of Scientific Explanation (1965) Hempel pointed out that a paradox arises from the supposition that confirming evidence provides equal support for all logically equivalent hypotheses: Since "All swans are white" is logically equivalent to "All non-white things are non-swans" (by contraposition), it follows that observing a brown dog should increase confidence in our belief that swans are white. Recommended Reading: Carl Gustav Hempel, Selected Philosophical Essays, ed. by Richard C. Jeffrey (Cambridge, 2000); Carl Gustav Hempel, Philosophy of Natural Science (Prentice-Hall, 1966); and The Philosophy of Carl G. Hempel: Studies in Science, Explanation, and Rationality, ed. by James H. Fetzer (Oxford, 2000).

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