<biography, history of philosophy> Italian social philosopher (1891-1937) whose Quaderni del carcere (Prison Notebooks) (1929-1935) defended a humanistic version of the political philosophy of Marx as an alternative to Italian fascism. Like Croce, Gramsci deplored authoritarian government of every variety and argued that social classes are shaped as much by their characteristic patterns of thought as by their material circumstances. Recommended Reading: The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings 1916-1935, ed. by David Forgacs and Eric J. Hobsbawm (NYU, 2000); Antonio Gramsci: Pre-Prison Writings, ed. by Richard Bellamy and Virginia Cox (Cambridge, 1994); Sue Golding, Gramsci's Democratic Theory: Contributions to a Post-Liberal Democracy (Toronto, 1992); and Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations, ed. by Stephen Gill (Cambridge, 1993).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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