<biography, history of philosophy> Indian political leader (1869-1948), also called "Mahatma" (the Great-Souled). In opposition to racial discrimination against Indian nationals in South Africa and to British colonial rule of India itself, Gandhi urged the practice of Satyagraha in a practical effort to achieve peaceful resolution of political differences as head of the Indian National Congress. Constructive Programme: Its Meaning and Place (1941) includes a detailed description of the method he espoused. Active in efforts to reduce Hindu-Muslim ethnic conflict, Gandhi himself was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic. Recommended Reading: The Essential Gandhi: His Life, Work, and Ideas: An Anthology, ed. by Louis Fischer (Vintage, 1983); Gandhi on Non-Violence, ed. by Thomas Merton (Norton, 1965); An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth, tr. by Mahadev Desai (Beacon, 1993); Bhikhu Parekh, Gandhi (Oxford, 1997); and Glyn Richards, The Philosophy of Gandhi: A Study of His Basic Ideas (Curzon, 1992).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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