<history of philosophy, biography> french philosopher and sociologist (1858-1917). Durkheim argued that since society is something more than merely a collection of individual human beings, it follows that social events cannot be explained wholly in biological or psychological terms. This insight was a significant impetus for the independence of sociology as a science. His major writings include lÈments de sociologie (1889), Les Regles de la methode sociologique (Rules for Sociological Method) (1895), De la division du travail social (The Division of Labor in Society) (1893), and Le Suicide (Suicide: A Study in Sociology) (1897). Durkheim criticized pragmatism in Pragmatism and Society (1914). Recommended Reading: Emile Durkheim, On Morality and Society: Selected Writings, ed. by Robert N. Bellah (Chicago, 1975); Gianfranco Poggi, Durkheim (Oxford, 2000); and Steven Lukes, Emile Durkheim, His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study (Stanford, 1985).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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