<history of philosophy, biography> russian-British historian, diplomat, and political philosopher (1909-1997). In Four Essays on Liberty (1969), Berlin drew an important distinction between the positive freedom to act and the negative freedom from interference in so acting. Societies that differ in their conceptions of liberty, Berlin argued, are likely to exhibit profoundly different social structures. Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (1939) and Historical Inevitability (1954) criticize the philosophy of Marx, with special treatment of his view of history. Recommended Reading: Isaiah Berlin, The Crooked Timber of Humanity, ed. by Henry Hardy (Princeton, 1998); The Proper Study of Mankind: An Anthology of Essays, ed. by Roger Hausheer and Noel Annan (Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2000); John Gray, Isaiah Berlin (Princeton, 1997); and The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin, ed. by Mark Lilla, Ronald Dworkin, and Robert Silvers (NY Review, 2001).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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