<theology, ontology, metaphysics, christian philosophy>, <stoicism, neoplatonism, political thought, ethics>, <manicheism, rethoric, S. Ambrose, medieval philosophy>, <skepticism, epistemology, philosophy of religion>, <Pelagianism, theodicy, origianal sin, escathology>, philosophy of history> born to a Christian mother and pagan father at Tagaste in North Africa, Augustine (354-430) was a confirmed Manichaean during his early years as a student and teacher of rhetoric at Carthage and Rome. But in Milan, during his early thirties, he began to study Neoplatonic philosophy under the guidance of Ambrose and eventually converted to Christianity. An account of his early life and conversion, together with a reasoned defense of his Neoplatonic principles, may be found in the Confessiones (Confessions) (401). He was named the Christian bishop of Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) in 396, and devoted the remaining decades of his life to the formation of an ascetic religious community. Augustine argued against the skeptics that genuine human knowledge can be established with certainty. His explanation of human nature and agency combined stoic and Christian elements. But it was by reference to the abstract philosophy of Plato that Augustine sought to prove the existence of god. Acknowledging the difficulties of divine control and foreknowledge, he used an analysis of the nature of time to defend human freedom in De Gratia et Libero Aribitrio (On Grace and Free Will). In De Civitate Dei (The City of God) (413-427) Augustine distinguished religion and morality from politics and tried to establish the proper relations among them, arguing for the church's strict independence from (if not its outright superiority to) the civil state. You might be interested in viewing portions of a Dutch library's copy of a fifteenth -century illuminated manuscript of this text. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: Sancti Aurelii Augustini opera omnia (Paris, 1679-1700); The Essential Augustine, ed. by Vernon J.Bourke (Hackett, 1974); Augustine, The Confessions, ed. by Susan B. Varenne (Vintage, 1998); Augustine, City of God, tr. by Marcus Dods (Modern Library, 2000). Secondary sources: Henry Chadwick, Augustine (Oxford, 1986); James Wetzel, Augustine and the Limits of Virtue (Cambridge, 1992). Additional on-line information about Augustine includes: James J. O'Donnell's excellent survey of Internet resources. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. John F. Callahan's lecture on Augustine and the Greek Philosophers. a thorough article in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Michael Mendelson's article in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Christopher Kirwan's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: the problem of evil, medieval philosophy, original sin, Pelagius, philosophy of religion, theodicy, and just war. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. A lecture on Augustine from Charles Ess. Snippets from Augustine (Latin and English) in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Bj–rn Christensson's brief guide to Augustine studies. Robert Sarkissian's philosophical summary. A brief entry in The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001.
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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