<geometry, mathematics, ancient philosophy, physics, science>, <epistemology, machine> Sicilian geometrician (287-212 BCE) who calculated an accurate value for p, demonstrated the relationship between the volume of spheres and cylinders, discovered methods for determining the center of gravity of plane figures, and provided a foundation for the science of hydrostatics. Archimedes also invented many ingenious machines, including a pump for raising water, effective levers and compound pulleys, and a mechanical planetarium. He died defending Syracuse against a Roman seige during the second Punic war. Recommended Reading: E. J. Dijksterhuis, Archimedes (Princeton, 1987).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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